Genetic Expression Changes with Psychopathy
Node Smith, ND
The expression of many genes that have previously been associated with autism is abnormal and is also in violent psychopathy, a new study shows. The researchers used stem cell technology to analyze the expression of genes and proteins in the brain cells of psychopathic violent offenders. Published in Molecular Psychiatry, the findings may open up new avenues for the treatment of psychopathy. The study was carried out in collaboration between the University of Eastern Finland, the University of Helsinki and Karolinska Institutet in Sweden.
Stem cell technology analyzed the expression of genes and proteins in the brain cells of psychopathic violent offenders
Psychopathy is an extreme form of antisocial behavior, with about 1% prevalence in the general population, and 10-30% prevalence among incarcerated criminal offenders. Psychopathy is known to be strongly hereditary, but whether or not it is associated with abnormal expression of genes or proteins in neurons has remained unclear, until now.
Skin cells were used to create pluripotent stem cells differentiated into cortical neurons and astrocytes
In the newly published study, the researchers used stem cell technology to analyze the expression of genes and proteins that have been associated with psychopathy. The study participants’ skin cells were used to create pluripotent stem cells, which were then differentiated into cortical neurons and astrocytes. The study population comprised psychopathic violent offenders and healthy controls. Since psychopathy was accompanied by substance abuse, the study population also included non-psychopathic substance abusers. This made it possible for the researchers to determine which abnormalities were associated exclusively with psychopathy.
Study shows the following for expression of these genes
The study shows that psychopathy is associated with robust alterations in the expression of genes and immune-response-related molecular pathways. Several of these genes have also been linked to autism. In neurons, psychopathy was associated with marked upregulation of RPL10P9 and ZNF132, and downregulation of CDH5 and OPRD1. In astrocytes, RPL10P9 and MT-RNR2 were upregulated. The expression of these genes explained 30-92% of the variance of psychopathic symptoms. Psychopathy was also associated with altered expression of proteins related to glucose metabolism and the opioid system.
Violent and psychotic behavior associated with alterations in glucose metabolism and opioidergic neurotransmission
Several earlier studies have suggested that violent and psychotic behavior are associated with alterations in glucose metabolism and opioidergic neurotransmission. The new findings support the idea of abnormal opioid system function being a factor underlying psychopathy. This suggests that using long-lasting injections of naltrexone or buprenorphine to balance the opioid system could be a feasible treatment for psychopathy.
- Tiihonen, J. et al. (2019) Neurobiological roots of psychopathy. Molecular Psychiatry. doi.org/10.1038/s41380-019-0488-z.
Node Smith, ND, is a naturopathic physician in Humboldt, Saskatchewan and associate editor and continuing education director for NDNR. His mission is serving relationships that support the process of transformation, and that ultimately lead to healthier people, businesses and communities. His primary therapeutic tools include counselling, homeopathy, diet and the use of cold water combined with exercise. Node considers health to be a reflection of the relationships a person or a business has with themselves, with God and with those around them. In order to cure disease and to heal, these relationships must be specifically considered. Node has worked intimately with many groups and organizations within the naturopathic profession, and helped found the non-profit, Association for Naturopathic Revitalization (ANR), which works to promote and facilitate experiential education in vitalism.
Node Smith graduated from the National University of Natural Medicine (NUNM) in 2017, and is currently licensed as a naturopathic physician in Oregon and working towards becoming licensed in Saskatchewan, Canada as well.